General Reading for the Period 1908-1950:


Methodology and Historiography:


Macedonian Question in the Hamidian Period, 1876-1908:


Peculiarity of Salonica in Early Twentieth-Century Turkey:


Censorship during the Hamidian Period, 1876-1908:


Impact of the Revolutions in Russia and Iran, 1905-1906:


Tax Revolts of 1906-1907:


The Economic Climate around 1908 in Turkey:


Ideological Opposition to Absolutist Rule before 1908:


The Revolution of 1908:


Economic, Social and Political Transformation, 1908-1918:


The First World War, 1914-1918:


Interregnum: 'National Struggle,' 1919-1923:


Establishment of the Republic, 1923-1931:


Corporatist Decades: One-Party Regime in Turkey, 1931-1946:


Turkish Politics and the Economy during World War II:


Crisis and Fall of the Corporatist State, 1946-1950:





Readings on the Revolutions of 1905 in Russia, 1906 in Iran, and 1908 in Turkey:




Editorials and News in The Times about the Revolutions in Russia, Iran, and Turkey: