Samples of likely exam questions



 Final Exam, January 9, 2013


The exam will be an open book exam. You may bring in all the materials relevant to class. You are free to use the materials you have brought yourselves. You are not supposed to exchange notes, or reading materials during the exam.


The general topic you are responsible for the exam is corporatism in Turkey during the 1920', 1930' and 1940s.


You will have a choice of three different "avenues" to proceed in making your presentations on corporatism: political, economic, or social.

You have to make use of the required reading materials and write a coherent and intelligible essay,a ddressing either the political, or economc, or the social aspects of corporatism. Necessarily, the boundaries are not really strictly clear-cut; so, you may need to refer to the aspects with which you are not primarily concerned.

1) Political: If you like to write an essay on the political aspect of corporatism you are advised to begin with the constitutional issues that corporatism advocates. What distinguishes corporatism from liberalism from the point of view of constitutional arrangements? Here, you must elaborate on the constitution of the parliament, the nature of elections, the party, etc. You must show how and why these institutions are similar or different from liberal arrangements under a liberal democratic regime.

2) Economic: If your preference is to write an essay on the economic structure and policies under a corporatist regime, then you have give eexamples of what the corporatist economic policies are, and how they are similar or different from liberal economic policies. How are these policies formulated? What institutions are built in order to pursue corporatist economic policies? In what sense are the aims of corporatist economic policies different from liberal/capitalist economic policies? Are individuals free to produce or consume what they choose under a corporatist regime? If not, then show with examples.


3) Social: If you prefer to concentrate on the social aspects of corporatism you have start by telling what corporatist understand from society. How is society constructed and holds together in a corporatist vision? In what ways is the corporatist vision of society different from a liberal one? What do corporatists say about social classes and their relationship with one another? Another aspect may be life in rural ares versus life in cities. How are they different in corporatist thought? What do corporatists say about village life, as opposed to city life, especially life in  ametropolis? For the social policies of corporatists you must use concerete examples. These examples may be drawn from the towns where people live to what they wear.




You will be requested to hand in your answers to the exam on December 12, 2012, Wednesday, by noon.


The political crisis in mid-1912 led to the downfall of the constitutional system established after the Revolution of 1908. This crisis can be labelled as a coup d'etat, a process through which the contitutionally formed government was forced out of office, and the constitutionally elected parliament was dissolved.

Opposition to the new parliamentary regime can be said to have started immediately after the Revolution of 1908 and the opening of the parliament in late 1908. If we consider '31 Mart Vakas覺' of April 1909 as the first serious and semi-successful attempt to dismantle parliamentary regime in Turkey, we can argue that the events in the Summer of 1912 were also part and parcel of the same project by which the opposition tried to do away with parliamentary rule in Turkey.

By judging from the newspaper accounts, selected from The Times of London, how can you reconstruct a story of this political crisis? The crisis involved the questioning of the general elections of 1912, and the composition of the parliament. Furthermore, arguments about the constitutional amendment concerning Article 7, and Article 35 entered into the discussion.

By taking into consideration the newspaper articles, parliamentary debates, and articles and books at your command, try to analyze this crisis. What are the grievances of the (monarchist) opposition with respect to the Committee of Union and Progress, to the elections of 1912, and to the parliament and parliamentary rule? How do the Unionists try to defend themselves and the constitutional rule? What can you reconstruct from the speeches of Unionist deputies in the parliament, especially of Mehmet Cavit Bey, Deputy for Salonika, and Nesim Mazliyah (Nisim Mazelyah), Deputy for 襤zmir?



On the parliamentary debates

You can follow the parliamentary debates of the day, concerning not only the criticisms of the policies of the government in charge, but also the debates on the constitutional amendment of Article 35.

The parliamentary debates are available in the web site of the Turkish Parliament:

More specifically the period (i.e., 1912) documents can be found in

In the 'old' calender the year 1912 is 1328. The calender, further, needs an adjustment of 13 days. Thus, the debate, for example on 14 July 1328, actually takes place on 27 July 1912.



 The articles selected from The Times, 1912



On the Coup d'etat of 1912



On the Turkish Constitution and its Amendments, including the Amendments to Article 7 and Article 35



 On the Elections in Turkey between 1908 and 1919